IPT - IPRONA Polyphenol Technology
IPRONA Polyphenol Technology isolates anthocyanins, polyphenols, polysaccharides and the high-molecular-weight fraction linked to viral suppression.
In vitro studies have shown elderberries have antibacterial and antiviral properties, spurring further research into the specific molecules and mechanisms behind these effects on microorganisms. The levels of anthocyanins correlate to the antioxidant power of elderberries, confirming the significance of the molecules.1
However, other studies suggest the polysaccharides found in elderberries also play a critical role. In one experiment, researchers separated concentrated elderberry juice out into different fractions, analyzed their composition and assessed their effects on mice infected with the influenza virus.2
The high-molecular-weight fractions exhibited the most potent viral suppression. These fractions contained a smaller percentage of anthocyanins than lower-molecular-weight fractions, suggesting that molecules other than the antioxidant pigments were acting on the viruses.
As the high-molecular-weight fractions were rich in polysaccharides, these carbohydrates emerged as a potential driver of the antiviral effects. Subsequent studies of the immunomodulating properties of pectins, a group of cell wall polysaccharides, added weight to that hypothesis.3 The paper found that polysaccharides may drive the reported effects of elderberries on cold and influenza through the modulation of the immune system, specifically the macrophages that detect and destroy pathogens.
The researchers have shown that the extracts obtained using IPRONA’s Polyphenol Technology are particularly effective at activating monocytes, a type of innate immune cell. As importantly, the activated monocytes take their anti-inflammatory form and produce cytokines such as interleukin 10. This equips the monocytes to calm the inflammation that underpins many symptoms of common cold and flu, potentially explaining the effects of elderberries on people with these conditions. IPRONA and its collaborators are working to further elucidate the relationship between elderberries and monocytes, for example through studies to show the extract promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of the immune cells.
The researchers have identified the polysaccharide fraction of the extract as the driving force behind the effect on monocytes. IPRONA’s extraction method, IPT (“IPRONA Polyphenol Technology”), uses ultrafiltration to capture a different set of isolates than is achieved using classic ethanol extraction. Notably, IPRONA Polyphenol Technology isolates anthocyanins, polyphenols, polysaccharides and the high-molecular-weight fraction linked to viral suppression.
- Ozgen, M., Scheerens, J. C., Reese, R. N. & Miller, R. A. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.) accessions. Pharmacogn. Mag. 6, 198–203 (2010).
- Kinoshita, E., Hayashi, K., Katayama, H., Hayashi, T. & Obata, A. Anti-influenza virus effects of elderberry juice and its fractions. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 76, 1633–1638 (2012).
- Ho, G. T. T. et al. Structure-activity relationship of immunomodulating pectins from elderberries. Carbohydr. Polym. 125, 314–322 (2015).
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